The role of ultrasound in diagnosing tumors

Benign tumors and tumor-like lesion of the foot and ankle are not uncommon. Malignant tumors and especially malignant bone tumors of the foot are rare; they’re often misdiagnosed and 50% are initially inadequately treated.
Ultrasound (US) may show typical patterns in ganglion cyst or benign lipoma. It can show the size, situation and vascularity of soft-tissue tumors, but in all suspected tumors (benign or not) it is mandatory to perform at least an MRI before any surgery. In soft-tissue tumors, ultrasound of the whole limb will assess lymphatic node extension of the disease.
All malignant cases must be discussed in multidisciplinary team meetings and treated by specialized teams. Conservative treatments are difficult and lead to an increased risk of local recurrence. Many local recurrences occur in soft-tissue tumors because of the particular anatomy of the foot. It should always be considered if an amputation should be preferred to conservative management.

Mascard et al. (2017) wrote a very interesting and detailed article about tumors of the foot and ankle which can provide very useful info if being confronted in clinical practice with such tumors.